One of the administrative science domains that feeds Performance Management as a discipline is the quality movement. The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle is at the core of the link between the two fields. It has been promoted and used in its current form for over 50 years. However, its roots can be traced back to ancient Greece.
Socrates (469-399 BC) formulated the dialectic inquiry process based on the idea of questioning and modifying understanding through the conflict of opposing ideas. This technique was further refined by Aristotle (384-322 BC), who enunciated a method of scientific investigation that employed both dialectics and empirical observations. His deductive reasoning approach combined with inductive elements became the foundation of the western scientific method, influencing philosophy and scientific inquiry for hundreds of years.
The famous arab scholar Ibn Sina, known to the western world as Avicenna (980-1037), proposed two stages of the scientific knowledge discovery process: conceptualizing what is meant and verifying what is being conceptualized, the basis of what evolved into what is being called the “Avicennian logic”.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626), considered one of the fathers of the scientific revolution, employed such an approach in defining a more modern version of the scientific method, with the balance leaning more towards the induction reasoning. The conceptualization becomes hypothesis and verification is separated into two further steps: data gathering and results analysis.